Friday, August 26, 2016

Trilokyanatha Temple & Thrikooda Temple, Thiruparuthikunram, Kanchipuram

Trilokyanatha Temple & Thrikooda Temple, Thiruparuthikunram, Kanchipuram
Trilokyanatha Temple and Thrikooda Basdi Temple are the two Jain Temples located in Thiruparuthikunram located at the suburbs of Kanchipuram Town. A predominant, illustrious Jinalaya with all features was built in 6 century AD. This is the standing testimony of the glory of Jainism in this area in ancient times. So the area was called as Jinkanchi since the past. This is one among the four of Vidha Sthaanam in those days. The presiding deity is Lord Mahaveer in this Jinalaya.

Thiruparuthikunram is located southwest of Kanchipuram. However the temple construction was commenced by the Pallava dynasty but expansions are takes place in subsequent reign of the Chola and the Vijayanagara emperors. All rulers were giving patronage to the Jinalaya. In this Temple complex, there are two Jain temples termed as Trilokyanatha Temple and Chandra Prabha Temple. Tourists can see beautiful paintings on the ceilings of the temple.

The main deity of Mahaveerar was made up of bright pink stone. Temple built out of yellow stone has inscriptions which belong to 9th century. Currently the temple is under the control of Tamilnadu Archeological Department. Earlier this place was the centre of Jainism and Jaina mutt was also present. Now the mutt was moved to Melsithamur near Gingee. Thiruparuthikunram is a village situated on the banks of the Palar River and is a suburb of Kanchipuram’s Pillaiyaar Palayam.

Legends attribute its construction to Vamana and Mallisena, two Jain sages who asked their Pallava disciple to do so. Other speaks of King Simhavishnu and his wife giving the land. Going by the inscriptions recorded from the 1890s to the 1920s, the temple had received large grants of land, even whole villages from Parakesarivarman Chola, Kulottunga Chola who conquered Madurai. The settlement is referred to as Jina Kanchi.

Sage Pushpasena Vamanarya constructed the gopuram in circa 1199. Pallava kings like Alagiya Pallavan has contributed to the construction of the walls in the 13th century. Vijayanagar Kings like Krishnadevaraya have also bequeathed land and had the 14th century paintings repainted in the 16th-17th centuries. The temple construction was commenced by the Pallava dynasty but expansions took place in subsequent reign of the Chola and the Vijayanagara emperors. All rulers were giving patronage to the Jinalaya.

The Temple
The Jinalaya complex consists of two sections. One is Thrailokianathar Jinalaya and other is Thirukooda Basdi.

Trilokyanatha Temple:
The sanctum with Shri Mahaveerar idol and a Ardhamandapam, was built in 556 AD by king of Simhavishnu Pallava. The brick work structure was damaged in due course. Then it was renovated by the king of Kulothunga chola in 10th Century AD. The rear wall of sanctum and vimanam has a fashion of Gajabrushta (back view of an elephant). The old stone idol of Mahaveerar was eroded, so a wooden made statue was established on the plinth. The ardhamandapam and Muhamandapam has rumble stone basement and sand brick superstructure, like the Chola period temple art.

In the 13th Century AD, Shri Pushpathanthar sanctum and the crown were built same as Gajabrushta model and a separate sanctum and small vimanam also built for Shri Dharmadevi. Both structures are adjusted in the width of ardhamandapam of Shri Mahaveerar. Both the statues of Thirthankars were damaged; wooden made idols of Shri Mahaveera and Shri Pushpathanthar were installed and coated, frequently, with colour paints.

Thrikooda Basdi:
The second Section was built in 12th Century AD and renovated at the end of the same century by the Chola king. It got three sanctums with Shri Padmapraba, Shri Vasupoojyar, Shri Parshwanathar idols on the respective base. All are made in lime mortar. On the rectangular block, the structure of Shri Parshwanathar is adjusted to fit in the middle place, in a standing posture with five headed snake on the backside. It comprises of three sanctum rooms, so it is called as Thrikooda temple. At front an ardhamandapam and Muhamandapam was built in usual manner.

In front of the two porches, 60 feet wide common pavilion called as Sangeethamandapam (pavilion for concerts) was built in the year 1387 to 1388 AD by Shri Irugappa, the minister of Vijayanagara king. It has 24 tall pillars with different designs like square, hexagon, octagon type has carvings at the base and art paintings on the roof slab.

It exhibits the life events of Shri Rishabha, Shri Neminath, Shri Mahaveer and Shri Dharmadevi. In the year of 1234 AD, in the Chola reign (King Rajaraja chola-III), a long pavilion Santhimandapam also built for the purpose of worshipping, during the Urchavam (festival) time.

After, a Sanctum was built for Shri Rishabanathar; a stone carved idol was established on the plinth. On the Southeast corner a granary was constructed then converted as Kitchen room in due course. Southwest end a shrine for Brahmadevar was built. (Evidences of antique was concealed while renovation). Then five saint chambers called as Munivasam was constructed for saints Shri Mallisenar, Shri Pushpasenar, Shri Pushpasenawamanar, Shri Chandrakeerthi and Shri Anandhaveeriar. They are the Caretakers and trustees of the temple.

The open corridor was enclosed by raised wall with an entranceway in the east is crowned with three tier tower consists of Thirthankar statues, which was built in 13th Century AD in the Vijayanagara reign period. Kura, a temple holy tree has been exiting since many centuries.

It seems in moderate height, neither growing tall nor getting short, for several years. The enclosure wall is built in 13th Century AD. Nearby two altars were placed in the corridor. They got the carvings of two saints.

Inside the Munivasam sanctums, Shri Parshwanathar stone carved statue and Shri Rishabanathar statue were embraces on the respective plinth. More alloy made God and demi-god idols are secured tightly in a grilled compartment. The above references of Stone inscriptions were preserved in the temple complex. Now the Jinalaya is under the control of Archaeological Survey of India.

On the southwest outskirts of the temple five peedams are installed on a platform, to commemorate the Five Munis, who were staying in the Muni-vasam chambers, after getting their moksha.

The holy spot is identified as Arunagirimedu. All special poojas, rituals, Urchavams, festivals are celebrated by the local Jain families.

Thiruparuthikunram Jain Temple,
Thiruparuthikunram, Pillaiyarpalayam Putheri,
Kanchipuram, Kanchipuram District
Tamilnadu – 631502
Thiruparuthikunram is a village located on the banks of the Palar River, a little off the Pillaiyarpalayam suburbs of Kanchipuram. It is not inaccessible but locals in Kanchi tend to hear the name as Thiru-Paramkundram, so be careful to confirm that you want to go to the "Buddha temple". Take the road that connects the Kachabeswarar temple to Kailasanatha temple. You will pass by the Kanchi Kudil museum on your left. Turn left soon after and you will see many weavers' houses on your right. In a few minutes, you will find a temple on your left and a road opposite leading to another temple.
Take the road, and turn at the last left and then right soon after. It will help to ask for directions here to Pillaiyarpalayam-Thiruparuthikunram. You will be on the right track if you cross Kali-Amman temple on your left, pass a board on your right indicating that you are leaving Kanchi, cross a bumpy road on the riverbed and then turn left again. Go straight down this bumpy road till you see a Pillaiyaar temple under a tree, turn right and you will see the temple.
By Road:
Kanchipuram is well connected to rest of Tamilnadu by Road. Nearest town to Thiruparuthikunram Jain Temple is Kanchipuram which is 5 km away.
By Train:
Nearest Railway Station to Thiruparuthikunram Jain Temple is Old Kanchipuram Railway Stating which is 6km away. Bus and auto services are available to access the temple.
By Air:
Nearest airport to Thiruparuthikunram Jain Temple is Chennai Airport which is 65km away. Bus and Taxi services are available to access the temple.