Friday, February 17, 2017

Thiruvannamalai – General Information

Thiruvannamalai – General Information
Tiruvannamalai District (also known as Thiruvannamalai) is one of the 32 districts in the state of Tamilnadu, in South India. It was formed in the year 1989 from non-existing North Arcot District as Tiruvannamalai Sambuvarayar and Vellore Ambedkar. Tiruvannamalai town is the district headquarters. The district is divided into 12 Taluks - Chengam, Tiruvannamalai, Polur, Thandarampattu, Arani, Vandavasi, Kalasapakkam, Chetpet , Cheyyar and Vembakkam. Arani is famous for silk sarees. As of 2011, the district had a population of 2,464,875 with a sex-ratio of 994 females for every 1,000 males.

Tiruvannamalai District is known for eternal peace and divine with the proud possession of the sacred shrine of Lord Arunachaleswara and Ashrams. It had started functioning as a separate District from 30th September 1989, on bifurcation of the erstwhile North Arcot District. Tiruvannamalai is one of the most venerated places in Tamilnadu. In ancient times, the term "Annamalai" meant an inaccessible mountain. The word "Thiru" was prefixed to signify its greatness, and coupled with the two terms, it is called Tiruvannamalai.

Legends
In Hindu mythology, Parvati, wife of Shiva, once closed the eyes of her husband playfully in a flower garden at their abode atop Mount Kailash. Although only a moment for the gods, all light was taken from the universe, and the earth, in turn, was submerged in darkness for years. Parvati performed penance with other devotees of Shiva, and her husband appeared as a column of fire at the top of Annamalai hills, returning light to the world. He then merged with Parvati to form Ardhanarishvara, the half-female, half-male form of Shiva. The Annamalai, or red mountain, lies behind the Annamalaiyar temple, and is associated with the temple of its namesake. The hill is sacred and considered a lingam, or iconic representation of Shiva, in itself. 

Another legend is that once, while Vishnu and Brahma contested for superiority, Shiva appeared as a flame, and challenged them to find his source. Brahma took the form of a swan, and flew to the sky to see the top of the flame, while Vishnu became the boar Varaha, and sought its base. The scene is called Lingodhbava, and is represented in the western wall at the sanctum of most Shiva temples. Neither Brahma nor Vishnu could find the source, and while Vishnu conceded his defeat, Brahma lied and said he had found the pinnacle. In punishment, Shiva ordained that Brahma would never have temples on earth in his worship.

In Tamil, the word Arunam means red or fire and Asalam means hill. Since Shiva manifested himself in the form of fire in this place, this name Arunachalam came to be associated with Annamalai hill and the town. The first mention of Annamalai is found in Thevaram, the seventh century Tamil Saiva canonical work by Appar and Tirugnanasambandar.
History
For brief details, please refer below link;
Demographics & Geography
According to 2011 census, Tiruvannamalai District had a population of 2,464,875 with a sex-ratio of 994 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 272,569 were under the age of six, constituting 141,205 males and 131,364 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 22.94% and 3.69% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the district was 66%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. The district had a total of 588,836 households. There were a total of 1,238,177 workers, comprising 265,183 cultivators, 351,310 main agricultural labourers, 37,020 in house hold industries, 316,559 other workers, 268,105 marginal workers, 27,458 marginal cultivators, 173,753 marginal agricultural labourers, 9,700 marginal workers in household industries and 57,194 other marginal workers.
Tiruvannamalai District has an area of 6,191 km2. It is bounded on the north by Vellore District, on the east by Kanchipuram District, on the south by Villupuram District, and on the west by Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri districts. Tiruvannamalai District is divided into ten taluks, 27 blocks and 1,061 villages covering an area of 631,205 ha. The ten taluks of Tiruvannamalai are listed below:
S.No
Taluk
Headquarters
Area
Population
(2011)
Pop. density
1
Polur
Polur
509 km2
328,381
645 /km2
2
Tiruvannamalai-Urban
Tiruvannamalai
102 km2
345,087
3,382 /km2
4
Thandarampattu
Thandarampattu
691 km2
410,880
593 /km2
5
Arni
Arni
327 km2
220,220
673 /km2
6
Cheyyar
Tiruvethipuram
344 km2
200,157
618 /km2
7
Kalasapakkam
Kalasapakkam
532 km2
329,013
618 /km2
8
Javadhu Hills
Jamunamarathoor
645 km2
188,897
291 /km2
9
Vandavasi
Vandavasi
645 km2
421,174
652 /km2
10
Chengam
Chengam
510 km2
325,993
639 /km2
11
Chetpet
Chetpet
493 km2
290,100
588 /km2
12
Vembakkam
Vembakkam
310 km2
180,210
581 /km2
The average annual rainfall is 987 mm, out of which 80 percent is received during monsoon. The soils have an Ustic moisture regime and Hyperthermic temperature regime. Tiruvannamalai District comes under the Eastern Ghats (TN uplands) and Deccan plateau, hot semiarid region with red loamy soil with cropping period of 90 to 150 days. Excepting hills, the district falls in the North Eastern agro climatic zone of Tamilnadu.
Culture
Annamalaiyar Temple is the most prominent landmark of Tiruvannamalai. The temple complex covers an area of 10 ha (25 acres), and is one of the largest temples in India. It houses four gateway towers known as gopurams. The tallest is the eastern tower, with 11 stories and a height of 66 m (217 ft.), making it one of the tallest temple towers in India. The temple has numerous shrines, with those of Annamalaiyar and Unnamulai Amman being the most prominent. The temple complex houses many halls; the most notable is the thousand-pillared hall built during the Vijayanagar period.

The Annamalaiyar temple is one of the Pancha Bhoota Stalas, or five Shiva temples, with each a manifestation of a natural element: land, water, air, sky or fire. In Annamalaiyar temple, Shiva is said to have manifested himself as a massive column of fire, whose crown and feet could not be found by the Hindu gods, Brahma and Vishnu. Aathara Sthala are Shiva temples which are considered to be personifications of the Tantric chakras of human anatomy. The Annamalaiyar temple is called the Manipooraga Sthalam, and is associated with the Manipooraga chakra. 

The temple is revered in Thevaram, the Tamil Saiva canon and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam, one of the 276 temples that find mention in the Saiva canon. The most important festival of the Annamalaiyar temple is celebrated during the Tamil month of Karthikai, between November and December, concluding with the celebration of Karthikai Deepam. A huge lamp is lit in a cauldron, containing three tons of ghee, at the top of the Annamalai hills during the Deepam. To mark the occasion, the festival deity of Annamalaiyar circumambulates the mountain.

Inscriptions indicate that the festival was celebrated as early as the Chola period (850–1280) and was expanded to ten days in the twentieth century. Every full moon, tens of thousands of pilgrims worship Annamalaiyar by circumambulating the Annamalai hill barefoot. The circumambulation covers a distance of 14 kilometers (8.7 mi), and is referred as Girivalam. According to Hindu legend, the walk removes sins, fulfills desires and helps achieve freedom from the cycle of birth and rebirth. Offerings are made in a string of tanks, shrines, pillared meditation halls, springs and caves around the hill.

Tirumalai is an ancient Jain temple complex in the outskirts of Tiruvannamalai that houses three Jain caves, four Jain temples and a 16 feet (4.9 m) high sculpture of Neminathar dated from the 12th century and the tallest Jain image in Tamilnadu. The Ramana Ashram and ashram of Yogi Ramsuratkumar, located around the Annamalai hill are popular visitor attractions of Tiruvannamalai.

The Sathanur Dam over the Thenpennair River located 20 km (12 mi) southwest of the town is a prominent picnic spot. This 786.37 m Dam is 44.81m high and can store 7,321,000,000 cu ft. or 207,300,000 cubic meters of water. A scenic park is also present adjacent to this dam. Ulagalantha Perumal Temple in Tirukoyilur and Thiruvarangam, situated 20 km (12 mi) south of Tiruvannamalai are prominent Vishnu temples that are located around Tiruvannamalai.

Economy
In the District Arani and Thiruvannamalai regions are highest revenue generations regions respectively. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayat Raj named Tiruvannamalai one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the six districts in Tamilnadu currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
Agriculture:
Tiruvannamalai District is known for its two major businesses, agriculture and silk saree weaving. Rice cultivation and processing is one of the biggest businesses in this district. 112013 hectares of paddy cultivation is irrigated by 1965 lakes and 18 reservoirs and small dams. It has 18 regulated markets through which the farmers sell their agro products directly to the government. Through these regulated markets, 271411 metric tonnes of paddy harvested in 2007. There are lot of rice mills to process paddy found throughout the district. The modern rice mill near Cheyyar is the biggest government owned mill and Arani has around 278 rice mills. Kalambur is also has around 20 Rice mills and known for variety of rice called Kalambur Ponni rice.
Silk Weaving:
The district has a large populace of weavers from Sengunthar caste, who specialize in making Silk sarees. Hand looms are often engaged for weaving, although recently some have turned to mechanized methods of using Power looms. Arni is the most important revenue earning town in the district. Though the town is not popular off the state, a bulk of India's Silk apparels is produced by the people of Arni.
Industrialization:
The district started to industrialize following the establishment of the industrial complex near Cheyyar by the State Industries Promotion Corporation of Tamilnadu (SIPCOT). This is evidenced by the recent announcements of a 250-acre (1.0 km2) hi-tech Special Economic Zone for automotive components, a 300-acre (1.2 km2) electronics hardware park and the commitment from the Taiwanese Shoe Company to set up its unit. On Nov, 2009 Tamilnadu cabinet approved the Mahindara & Mahindra's Rs 1800 core automobile project in 450 acres. This unit will produce tractors, SUVs and commercial vehicles and auto parts. 
Aluminum die cast unit by Ashley Alteams, a joint venture by Ashok Leyland and Finland-based Alteams Oy started its production on Jan, 2010. This High pressure die cast will manufacture automobile and telecommunication components with initial capacity of 7000 ton per year. One of the largest sugar mills in the country - Cheyyar co-operative sugars - is situated near Cheyyar.
Factories:
There are many factories around Tiruvannamalai. Scent factories are large in number due to the high production of flowers around Tiruvannamalai. They are listed as follows: 1. Hindusthan house hold factories, 2. Sarala Birla factory of aroma oil, 3. Parthiban cottages aroma oil factory. The Tamilnadu government is planning for a SIPCOT at naidumangalam and kilpennathur both near Tiruvannamalai.
Places of Interest
For brief details, please refer below link;
Hotels List
For brief details, please refer below link;
Connectivity
For brief details, please refer below link;

2 comments:

SM SHANKAR said...

it was nice and helpful:)


Ilamurugan said...

Thanks for visiting brother.. :)