Wednesday, May 18, 2016

Tirupur – General Information

General Information
Tiruppur District is a district of the South Indian state Tamilnadu, formed in February 2009. The district is well-developed and industrialized. The Tiruppur banian industry, the cotton market, and the famous Uthukuli butter, among other things, provide for a vibrant economy. The city of Tiruppur is the administrative headquarters for the district. As of 2011, the district had a population of 2,479,052 with a sex-ratio of 989 females for every 1,000 males.

Etymology
The name Tiruppur is said to have emerged during the Mahabharata era. According to history, the cattle herds of Pandavas were stolen by thieves and the same was recaptured by Arjuna's forces resulting in the name "Tiruppur" (Thiruppu: to turn and oor: place in Tamil) meaning "place where they were returned back".

History
The district is named after the city of Tiruppur, In Mahabaratham Arjuna (Pandavas) returned the cattle captured by enemies and returned to Dharapuram (Nirai Meetal) Nirai Thiruputhal and become Tiruppur.

Tiruppur formed a part of the Kongu Nadu region ruled by the Cheras during Sangam period. The region was part of a prominent Roman trade route that connected east and west coasts of India. The medieval Cholas conquered the Kongu Nadu in the 10th century CE and Chola stone carvings mention Kanchi Maanadhi (Noyyal River) and the fertile sand that it deposited on its banks.

The region came under the rule of the Vijayanagara Empire by the 15th century and later Palayakarars, the chieftains of Madurai Nayaks ruled the region. In the later part of the 18th century, the region came under the Kingdom of Mysore, following a series of wars with the Madurai Nayak Dynasty. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Anglo-Mysore Wars, the British East India Company annexed the region into the Madras Presidency in 1799.

Tirupur was an agricultural town with irrigated farms and the farmers became small owners of various textile related units during the 1970s. The boom in the textile industry led to an interwoven network of the small scale units leading to growth of the city into a major textile hub. 

Since the 1990s, the formation of the new Tiruppur district had been urged by the exporters of Tiruppur. Tiruppur City and surrounding region, where there is considerable industrial and business activities, was to be the core area. They believed that a new district would facilitate administration of the region and allow more aggressive development measures. Tiruppur became a municipal corporation in 2008 and a separate Tiruppur district was carved out from parts of Coimbatore district and Erode district in 2009.

Tiruppur district was formed in 2009, carved out of the Coimbatore and Erode districts making it the 32nd district of Tamilnadu and one of the ten most industrialized and economically developed districts of Tamil Nadu. Before the formation of Tiruppur district, Avinashi, Madathukulam, Palladam, Tiruppur & Udumalpet were taluks of Coimbatore district; & Dharapuram and Kangeyam were taluks of Erode district. The new taluk Madathukulam was formed after the district was created.

Geography & Climate
Tiruppur district lies on the western part of Tamilnadu bordering the Western Ghats and hence the district enjoys a moderate climate. The district is surrounded by Coimbatore district in the west, Erode district to the North and northeast and Karur district in the east and Dindigul district in the south east. To the south the district is surrounded by Kerala state (Idukki district).The district has an area of 516.12 square kilometers. The southern and south western parts of the district enjoy maximum rainfall, due to the surrounding of Western Ghats.

The rest of the district lies in the rain shadow region of the Western Ghats and experiences salubrious climate most parts of the year, except the extreme east part of the district. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures for Tiruppur city during summer and winter vary between 35 °C to 18 °C. The average annual rainfall in the plains is around 700 mm with the North East and the South West monsoons contributing to 47% and 28% respectively to the total rainfall. The major rivers flowing through the district are Noyyal and Amaravathi.

The Amaravathi River is the main source of irrigation in the district. Amaravathi Dam, which created Amaravathi Reservoir, is located at Amaravathinagar. Thirumoorthy dam which is created by the PAP project is situated in this district. Both Amaravathi dam and Thirumoorthy dam are the prime source of irrigation in the district, whereas Uppaar dam is another dam which receives water from seasonal rains.

Demographics
According to 2011 census, Tiruppur district had a population of 2,479,052 with a sex-ratio of 989 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 241,351 were under the age of six, constituting 123,612 males and 117,739 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, accounted for 15.97% and .22% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the district was 71.02%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. 

The district had a total of 712,210 households. There were a total of 1,266,137 workers, comprising 130,331 cultivators, 216,945 main agricultural labourers, 36,139 in house hold industries, 785,181 other workers, 97,541 marginal workers, 5,486 marginal cultivators, 29,388 marginal agricultural labourers, 4,849 marginal workers in household industries and 57,818 other marginal workers.
Administration & Politics
Tiruppur district is administered by a collector.
Parliamentary Constituencies:
·        Tiruppur (Part)
·        Pollachi(Part)
·        Coimbatore(Part)
·        Erode(Part)
·        The Nilgiris (Part)
Assembly Constituencies:
·        Tiruppur North
·        Tiruppur south
·        Palladam
·        Dharapuram
·        Kangeyam
·        Avinashi
·        Udumalpet
·        Madathukulam
Revenue Divisions:
·        Dharapuram
·        Tiruppur
·        Udumalaipettai
Municipal Corporations:
·        Tiruppur Municipal Corporation(TCMC)
Municipalities:
·        Nallur
·        Dharapuram
·        Kangeyam
·        Palladam
·        Udumalaipettai
·        Velampalayam
·        Vellakoil
·        Town Panchayats
·        Muthur
·        Rudravathi
·        Kannivadi
·        Mulanur
·        Kolathupalayam
·        Chinnakkampalayam
·        Avinashi (also spelled as Avanashi)
·        Dhali
·        Madathukulam
·        Kaniyur
·        Komaralingam
·        Samalapuram
·        Sankaramanallur
·        Thirumuruganpoondi
·        Kunnathur
·        Uthukuli
Economy
The city of Tiruppur, at the heart of the district, is a textile center. The agricultural sector is predominantly small and marginal farmers with land holdings of less than two hectares. Tiruppur is also known as the knitwear capital of India, accounting for 90% of India's cotton knitwear export. It has spurred up the textile industry in India for the past three decades. It contributes to a huge amount of foreign exchange in India.
In the Fiscal year 2013, exports were ₹17,500.[37] The city provides employment to around 400,000 workers, with the average salary per worker being around ₹ 9,000 per month. Special Industrial Parks have been developed to support the textile industry. Nethaji Apparel Park, Tirupur Export Knitwear Industrial Complex, SIDCO Industrial Estate and J.S.Apparel Park are a few that are operational.
Nethaji Apparel Park has 53 companies manufacturing knitwear for exports. The NAP presently provides employment to 15,000 people and generates export revenue of Rs. 15 billion from the apparels produced in it. Tirupur Export Knitwear Industrial Complex was established in 1992 and has 189 sheds built over a 4200 square feet area. 
Some of the world's largest retailers including C&ANikeWalmart, PrimarkAdidasSwitcher, Polo Ralph Lauren, Diesel, Tommy Hilfiger, M&S, FILAH&MReebok import textiles and clothing from Tiruppur.
Environmental Issues
Tiruppur, like any other industrial town, faces its share of environmental pollution complaints. As per the directive of Madras High Court, zero liquid discharge (ZLD) should be strictly followed in Tiruppur knitwear cluster during the effluent treatment process. Failure to implement this order, led to a court ordered closure of all dyeing units and bleaching units. In turn, Tirupur Exporters Association made a representation to the Government that export revenues of ₹ 11 billion were lost and about 100,000 laborers lost their job due to a closure of dyeing units in Tirupur.

As per a report by CRISIL, prepared in February 2011, ensuring Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD), will primarily affect the operational costs of dyeing and bleaching units, increasing it by 7% to 10%. Eventually, by complying with the above order, Tiruppur became the first textile cluster in India to achieve Zero Liquid Discharge in their units. Both the Common Effluent Treatment Plant and Individual Effluent Treatment Plant are in place to treat effluents.
Farmers in Tiruppur and its hinterland, who have faced the brunt of the indiscriminate discharge of industrial effluents into the water bodies for the past many decades, are yet again becoming concerned. Untreated effluents, mostly containing dyes and chemicals in high concentration, are now seen let off clandestinely once again in large quantities through storm water drains into water bodies or into open areas with the discharge mostly happening during the early morning hours or during rain.
Tourism
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Accommodation
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Connectivity
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