Pudukkottai – General Information
Pudukkottai District is a district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. The city of Pudukkottai is the district headquarters. It is also known colloquially as Pudhugai. Pudukkottai district is one of the least urbanized districts in Tamil Nadu.
Pudukkottai district is bounded on the northeast and east by Thanjavur District, on the southeast by the Palk Strait, on the southwest by Ramanathapuram and Sivaganga districts, and on the west and northwest by Tiruchirapalli District. As of 2011, the district had a population of 1,618,345 with a sex-ratio of 1,015 females for every 1,000 males.
The district has an area of 4663 km² with a coastline of 42 km. The district lies between 78° 25' and 79° 15' east longitude and between 9° 50' and 10° 40' of the north latitude.
Pudukkottai is the administrative headquarters of Pudukkottai District in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the banks of River Vellar, it has been ruled, at different times, by the Early Pandyas, Thondaimans, and the British. It is situated about 395 kilometers (245 mi) southwest of the state capital Chennai and about 55 kilometers (34 mi) southwest of Tiruchirappalli. The people in the city are employed majorly in tertiary sector activities. Tamil Nadu's first women Asiad Santhi Soundarajan is from Pudukkottai.
Being the district headquarters, Pudukkottai accommodates the district administration offices, government educational institutes, colleges and schools. Pudukkottai is a part of Pudukkottai constituency and elects its member of legislative assembly every five years, and a part of the Tiruchirappalli constituency that elects its member of parliament.
The city is administered by a selection-grade municipality established in 1912 as per the Municipal Corporation Act. The city covers an area of 21.25 km2 and had a population of 143745 in 2011. Roadways are the major mode of transport to the city, while it has also got rail connectivity. The nearest airport is Tiruchirappalli International Airport, located at a distance of 45 km from the city.
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Pudukkottai is located at 10.38°N 78.82°E in the valley of river Vellar. The city has a semi-arid climate with high temperatures throughout the year, and relatively low rainfall. The city is located in Pudukkottai district of the South Indian state, Tamil Nadu, at a distance of 390 km (240 mi) from Chennai. Pudukkottai has a plain terrain with a few rocky hills intersped in the outskirts. Urugumalai, Athimalai, Chennaimalai are the hills that surround the city.
The rivers that flow in Pudukkottai are Amaravathy, Noyal, Bhavani, and Cauvery. There are no notable mineral resources available in and around the city. Red loam and red sandy are the types of soil found in the town. Paddy, groundnut and sugarcane are the major crops in the region.
Pudukkottai experiences hot and dry weather throughout the year. The temperature ranges from a maximum of 38.7 °C (101.7 °F) to a minimum of 19.6 °C (67.3 °F). Like the rest of the state, April to June is the hottest months and December to January are the coldest. Pudukkottai receives an average of 919.4 mm (36.20 in) of rainfall yearly. The South west monsoon, with an onset in June and lasting up to August, brings scanty rainfall. Bulk of the rainfall is received during the North East monsoon in the months of October, November and December. The municipality covers an area of 21.25 km2 (21,250,000 m2).
According to 2011 census, Pudukkottai district had a population of 1,618,345 with a sex-ratio of 1,015 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 179,688 were under the age of six, constituting 91,696 males and 87,992 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 17.6% and .08% of the population respectively.
The average literacy of the district was 68.62%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. The district had a total of 387,679 households. There were a total of 761,693 workers, comprising 192,462 cultivators, 234,344 main agricultural labourers, 10,170 in house hold industries, 203,272 other workers, 121,445 marginal workers, 16,808 marginal cultivators, 70,805 marginal agricultural labourers, 3,771 marginal workers in household industries and 30,061 other marginal workers.
Pudukkottai district is divided into two revenue divisions and eleven taluks consisting of 757 revenue villages. District Collector is the administrator of the district. He controls the Revenue and Rural Development units of the district administration through his Personal Assistants and Panchayat Development officers.
District Revenue Officer, is assisting the District Collector in all his responsibilities. He is the authority for the land matters of the district. Revenue Collection in the district is regulated by the District Revenue Officer. The DRO grants various licenses, in the capacity of Additional District Magistrate.
The Project Officer, District Rural Development Agency, is implementing the various schemes of the Government for the rural welfare in the district. The District Collector has authorized the Project Officer to extend the basic needs such as drinking water, street light. Rural Housing Scheme to the people.
District Supply officer, manages the Public Distribution System in co-ordination with the Joint Registrar of Co-operatives, while the Special Deputy Collector for Public Grievance Redressed Cell, attends to the grievances submitted to the Collector and the grievances submitted to the Chief Minister regarding the district. District Collector is having two district level officers, one for the welfare of the Adi Dravidar and another for the Backward Classes and Minorities.
The Public Health system in the district and the maintenance of Government Hospitals are supervised by the District Collector through the Joint Director of Public Health, Pudukkottai.
The Deputy Director of Public Health, Pudukkottai is maintaining the rural health system and Primary Health Centres available at the villages under the supervision of the District Collector. The District Collector monitors the Agricultural and Animal Husbandry activities in this district through the Joint Director of Agriculture and Assistant Director of Animal Husbandry respectively at Pudukkottai.
District Collector also commands the works of the Chief Educational Officer, District Educational Officer and District Elementary Educational Officer who are managing the Educational Institutions upto Higher Secondary level. District Collector executing works relating to irrigation through the PWD authorities and road management through the Divisional Engineer-Highways, Pudukkottai. District Collector monitors the welfare actions of the Banking units in the district. In the capacity of the District Magistrate, the Collector grants various licenses.
The Superintendent of Police is responsible for maintaining Law and Order and exercises the prohibition in the district.
The SIPCOT Industrial Complex is located on Trichy - Rameswaram National Highways (NH 210). This Industrial complex is well connected by Road, Rail and Air. It was established in 1980. The allotment of land commenced in 1982 to accommodate Engineering and General Industries. The total extent of complex area is 421.10 acres (1.7041 km2).
Pudukkottai district is predominantly an agricultural oriented district. Generally a dry and hot climate prevails in this district and this district's agricultural production depends mainly on the rainfall. The normal annual rainfall of Pudukkottai district is 922.8 mm. Out of which 52.2 mm is received in winter, 124.6 mm is received in hot weather period, 351.9 mm is received during South West Monsoon and 394.1 mm is received in North East Monsoon. Recently Tamil Nadu Agricultural University started Diploma College in agriculture at Kudumiyanmalai with strength of approximately 50 students including girls.
There are 5,385 irrigation tanks available in this district, of which 172 tanks are system tanks fed by Grand Anaikat Channel and the remaining are rain fed tanks. There are about 55,137 wells in the district catering an area of 7791 Ha. Paddy is the major crop of this district. 90000 Hectares of area is covered under paddy, out of which 135000 Hectares of area is fed with Cauvery Mettur Project through G.A. canal. The remaining area is well and tank fed. The present productivity level is 4.985 Mt. of Paddy /Hectare.
Other than Paddy, Groundnut is the major crop in this district which is mainly cultivated under rain fed condition. Groundnut is being cultivated in 36000 Hectares as rain fed crop and 8000 Hectares under irrigated condition Millet, Pulse, Cotton, Sugarcane, Gingelly are the other crops cultivated in this district.
Education and utility services
As of 2011, there were 33 schools in Pudukkottai: nine primary schools, seven middle schools and 17 high and higher secondary schools. There were three arts and science colleges, namely, H.H.The Rajah’s College for men, Govt. Arts College for Women and Govt. College of Education. There were five industrial training institute ITI in the town, namely, DIET, Govt. Industrial Technical Institute, Advanced I.T.I., Central ITI, Little flower ITI and Sri Brahadambal ITI .
Electricity supply to Pudukkottai is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB). A Chief Distribution engineer is stationed at the regional headquarters. Water supply is provided by the Pudukkottai Municipality from the Cauvery River through Jeyapuram head water works located 86 km (53 mi) away and Ammaiyappatti water works located 9.06 km (5.63 mi).
In the period 2000–2001, a total of 7 million litres of water was supplied everyday for households in the town. As per the municipal data for 2011, about 30-35 metric tonnes of solid waste were collected from Pudukkottai every day by door-to-door collection and subsequently the source segregation and dumping was carried out by the sanitary department of the Pudukkottai municipality. The coverage of solid waste management in the town by the municipality had an efficiency of 100% as of 2001. There is no underground drainage system in the town and the sewerage system for disposal of sullage is through septic tanks, open drains and public conveniences.
The municipality maintained a total of 191 km (119 mi) of storm water drains in 2011: 55 km (34 mi) pucca drains and 136 km (85 mi) open drains. As of 2011, there were a total of 31 hospitals, municipal dispensary, private dispensaries and private general clinics and five clinical labs that take care of the health care needs of the citizens. As of 2011, the municipality maintained a total of 4,039 street lamps: 631 sodium lamps, 3,407 tube lights and one high mast beam lamp. The municipality operates one weekly market, two daily vegetable markets and one daily fish market that cater to the needs of the town and the rural areas around it.