Brahmadesam is an Indian Panchayat village located in Viluppuram taluk of Viluppuram district in the state of Tamil Nadu. The two temples in the village Brahmapurisvara Temple and Patalisvara Temple are among the Archaeological Survey of India's list of monuments.
Brahmadesam Padaleeswarar temple is located 3km from Gingee to Villupuram Road. The earliest inscription in this temple dates to 24th year 238th day of Rajendra I. The temple faces east; it is an ekathala temple with a garbagraha, an ardhamandapa and a mugamandabam. All the walls are of stones. The griva and sikhara portions are of bricks. In case of Mugamandabam only the adhishtana are of stones, the walls and entablature being of bricks.
There is no Harams over the walls in the Garbagraha and like many other earliest structures, the superstructure starts off straightly with griva and sikhara. There are four griva koshtas and these are of empty. Certain special feature of this temple brings to mind the layout of Rajarajesvaram at Thanjavur and the Gangaikondacholeswaram of Gangaikonda Cholapuram. The main entrance to the sanctum and Sanctorium of these temples is not provided in the axis of the building.
Thus there are doorways reached by a flight of steps flanked by low and sinous-balastradas from the northern and the southern praharas. The peculiar feature of the Mugamandabam is that it is in the form of a massive cross with the northern and the eastern sides completely walled up, while on the southern side there are two sets of steps from the sides aiding after the projecting portion of the wall. The ardhamandapam has a very fine six carved pillars in a typical style of Rajaraja and Rajendra period.
Between the ardhamandapam and mugamandabam there is a small anthrlaya in to which the two gates from the sides open, on the either side of the entrance to the ardhamandapam there are two Rajendra type Dwarapalakas. The detached structure in front of the mugamandabam must have presented a graceful and fine faced to the entire temple but now it is in ruins.
There is a collapsed wall in the south eastern corner of what was once the praharam of the temple. It might have served as a madam with a kitchen. The entire structure is in disrepair.
This temple is among the Archaeological Survey of India's list of monuments. It is around 1000 years old. It is being renovated by ASI. In olden days it was called as Rajaraja-chaturvedimangalam.
An inscription on the temple records the gift of 33 cattle including cows, calves and a bull by Nilagangan Ammurikundan Solangadevan of Amur for burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of Brahmisvaramudaiya-Nayanar at Rajaraja-chaturvedimangalam, an independent brahmadeya village in Panaiyur-nadu, a subdivision of Rajraja-valanaldu. It will be evident from this record that Brahmadesam was surnamed Rajaraja-chaturvedimangalam.